5 Effects of Stress on the Mind and Body + What You Can Do to Combat It
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5 Effects of Stress on the Mind and Body + What You Can Do to Combat It

How Stress Effects the Body and Mind

November 4th is National Stress Awareness Day, and what better time to talk about stress than as we head into the holiday season?

Ironically, what is supposed to be the most wonderful time of the year often turns into the most stressful time of the year! This season brings with it added demands on our time, money, and patience, so we need to be careful not to sacrifice our health during these busy months.

Knowing the far-reaching effects of stress, not only on our psychological well-being, but also on our entire bodies, can help us remember to prioritize stress management and other self-care practices.

Stress, Cortisol, and Adrenals

You may have heard these terms used together, but are not sure how they are connected. Stress is any kind of outside factor that our body perceives as a threat to our safety or well-being. Many people think this only refers to emotional stress or trauma, but it also includes physiological stress on the body, such as infection, traumatic injury, or a poor diet. Stress can also include environmental factors like exposure to chemicals and other toxins.

Cortisol is one of the hormones that our body releases in response to stress. It is probably the one most commonly associated with stress, even though there are others involved.

The adrenals are two small glands located just above the kidneys that produce and release cortisol and other hormones into the bloodstream – learn everything you need to know about the adrenals here. One of the bodily processes that occurs during acute stress is often referred to as “fight or flight.” It is the defense mechanism that kicks in when we are in danger – or think we are. In addition to the adrenals pumping out more hormones, bodily functions that are unnecessary in the moment (such as digestion), are put on hold to preserve energy for the “fight or flight.”

While this can be a very useful and sometimes life-saving response to a threat, problems can begin to occur if stress becomes frequent or chronic. As the adrenal glands become over-worked, they eventually can’t keep up with the body’s demands for the various hormones they’re responsible for.

Here are a few of the major ways the mind and body are affected by chronic stress.


The adrenal glands produce more than just cortisol. They also produce neurotransmitters such as adrenaline (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that help regulate things like mood, performance, weight, pain perception, and sleep. Depending on the degree to which the adrenals have been affected, the neurotransmitters become unbalanced in various ways.

Let’s take dopamine, for example. If dopamine is too high, someone may experience anxiety, hyperactivity, or paranoia. If someone has low dopamine, it can lead to addiction, cravings, or depression.


In addition to neurotransmitters and cortisol, the adrenals also produce small amounts of the sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone (and their precursors). Along with balancing out hormones based on a person’s gender, sex hormones also help keep the negative effects of too much cortisol in check, acting as an antioxidant. But once the adrenals become chronically over-worked, more and more of the precursor materials (used to make sex hormones) get diverted to make cortisol, resulting in a decrease in sex hormones.

This results in lowered libido and other symptoms related to hormonal imbalances, such as premenstrual syndrome in women or erectile dysfunction in men.

Blood Sugar Regulation

When cortisol is released, the hormone glucagon is signaled and insulin is suppressed. Glucagon controls glucose storage in the liver so that glucose can be released into the blood. Insulin is the hormone that regulates the amount of glucose being taken from the bloodstream into the cells.

During chronic stress, the cells start to become resistant to insulin, leaving blood glucose levels elevated. This is why insulin resistance is the precursor to type II diabetes.

A few symptoms of insulin resistance include inability to lose weight, high cholesterol and triglycerides, cognitive dysfunction, and elevated blood glucose or insulin levels.


The adrenal glands are part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-thyroid-axis (HPAT), sometimes just referred to as the HPA-axis. Here’s where the thyroid comes into play.

The adrenals are regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary glands. When cortisol is released under stress, the hypothalamus and pituitary, which work in a feedback loop with cortisol, slow down their production of hormones. Unfortunately, this also slows down thyroid function since the hypothalamus and pituitary regulate thyroid hormones as well.

Stress can also negatively affect the enzyme that converts inactive thyroid hormone (T4) to active thyroid hormone (T3). There are a few other mechanisms involved in the stress/thyroid dysfunction connection as well. Hypothyroid symptoms such as cold extremities, dry skin, depression, and constipation often indicate sub-optimal adrenal function. Most likely, thyroid treatment will be less effective if the adrenals are not addressed as well.


Stress triggers inflammation. Our body knows that chronic inflammation is damaging, so it compensates by slowing down the immune system in order to keep the inflammation in check. The immune system is also directly suppressed during stress since it is one of those “unnecessary” functions when we’re in “fight or flight” mode. This also affects thyroid health since a suppressed immune system can activate viruses capable of attacking and damaging the thyroid.

As you can see, so many functions in the body are interconnected and related back to adrenal function and the stress response.

Stress Management

This is only a brief overview of the effects of stress on the body. Chronic stress has also been linked to cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. It is estimated that as much of 80% of the population has weakened adrenal function.

Since there are different stages of adrenal dysfunction that require different treatments, it is a good idea to seek out a knowledgeable health care provider who can test your adrenal function and related hormones. Since many doctors only recognize adrenal disorders such as Cushing’s and Addison’s disease, you may need to search someone out who takes a more in-depth look at adrenal function using functional tests such as a salivary cortisol test.

There are some things you can do today to start preventing and repairing the effects of stress on your body. Some of these include:

  • Getting adequate sleep (8+ hours, in bed by 10pm if possible, bedtime routine)
  • Practicing meditation or other relaxation techniques (ie. yoga, deep breathing, mindfulness)
  • Increase fiber in your diet (aim for 30-50 grams/day)
  • Focus on eating lots of fresh veggies and other low glycemic foods
  • Minimize processed foods and added sugars
  • Use fresh herbs and spices generously in cooking
  • Consider supplementing with magnesium, alpha-lipoic acid, vitamin C, B vitamins, and essential fatty acids – we recommend the high-quality, doctor-formulated brand, HoltraCeuticals
  • Consider supplementing with adaptogenic herbs, such as ashwagandha, licorice root, holy basil, and ginseng

If you are on any medications, check with a professional before supplementing with any herbal product to avoid any interactions. And most importantly, take time to practice self-care and stress management this holiday season. Your mood, hormones, thyroid, blood sugar, and immune system (among other things) will be much healthier for it!


1. https://www.holtorfmed.com/adrenal-health-adrenals-and-stress-keeping-your-cool-this-thanksgiving/

2. https://www.holtorfmed.com/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-stress-grief-and-emotional-trauma-as-triggers-for-cfs/

3. https://www.holtorfmed.com/stress-cortisol-insulin-resistance/

4. https://www.holtorfmed.com/why-do-stress-and-adrenals-go-hand-in-hand/

5. https://www.drlam.com/blog/chemical-imbalance-afs-part-1/11208/

6. https://www.holtorfmed.com/adrenal-health-understanding-the-adrenal-and-thyroid-connection/

7. https://www.holtorfmed.com/adrenal-health-understanding-the-adrenal-and-thyroid-connection/

5 Effects of Stress on the Mind and Body + What You Can Do to Combat It was last modified: November 10th, 2017 by Holtorf Medical Group

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